⎯  intro  ⎯

⎯  light and the eye  ⎯

light: the spectrum we can see
describing light & color
variations in natural light

design of the eye
the optical eye
photoreceptor cells
photopigment molecules

three plus one light receptors
four types of human photopigment
measuring photoreceptor light sensitivity
five views of the cone fundamentals

photopic & scotopic vision
daylight (photopic) sensitivity
dim light (scotopic) light sensitivity
mesopic light sensitivity

trichromatic mixtures
the principle of univariance
the cone excitation space
the chromaticity plane

constraints on color vision
standard assumptions
monochromatic vision
dichromatic vision
trichromatic vision
why not 4 or more cones?
why 3 badly spaced cones?


⎯  colormaking attributes  ⎯

measuring light & color

the spatial geometry of light
the nine photometric elements
luminous flux
luminous intensity
the viewing geometry
retinal illuminance

the colormaking attributes
hue purity
optimal color stimuli

⎯  the geometry of color perception  ⎯

newton's hue circle
color similarity
newton's opticks
the hue circle
the analysis of white
complementary mixtures
newton's legacy

hering's opponent processes
hering's urfarben
hering's opponent processes
the opponent functions
what are the opponent functions?

from cones to colors
a geometrical color standard
cone excitation space
cone contrast space
perceptual opponent space
necessary additional transformations

the geometry of colormaking attributes
measuring perceptual discrimination
luminance discrimination
hue discrimination
hue purity discrimination
color attributes combined

individual differences in color experience

color & language

⎯  basic forms of color  ⎯

basic forms of color
unrelated vs. related color
unrelated color
related color
self luminous vs. surface color
local vs. veiled color
plane vs. depth color
summary of basic forms of color
current terminology and concepts

⎯  synthesis of surface colors  ⎯

optimal circuits & analysis colors
yellow & cyan circuits
green & magenta circuits
summary of analysis optimal colors

perceptual landmarks & the optimal circuits
a 70 nm optimal circuit
additive changes in hue & luminance
natural chroma benchmarks
what is the perceptual structure for?
other visual structure

⎯  adaptation, anchoring & contrast  ⎯

luminance adaptation
size of the challenge
the form of adaptation
adaptation mechanisms
light & dark adaptation
mesopic color appearance

brightness, lightness & anchoring

chromatic adaptation
photoreceptor adaptation
successive color contrast
complementary colors
corresponding colors

chromatic induction
chromatic contrast
chromatic assimilation
luminance & color changes
color constancy

⎯  additive & subtractive color mixing  ⎯

additive color mixing
additive mixtures occur in the eye
the additive "primary" lights
the "white" color theory
real lights and true primaries
a scientific theory of color vision

subtractive color mixing
subtractive mixtures occur in substances
the subtractive "primary" colors
what is "primary" about subtractive primary colors?
ideal subtractive primaries
mixing subtractive primaries
don't confuse additive & subtractive mixtures
partitive mixture

substance uncertainty
material colors and visual colors
visual color can't predict material mixture
substance uncertainty in paints
the color is in the mixture

⎯  do "primary" colors exist?  ⎯

the ancient primaries
the painter's primaries
Newtonian color confusions
material trichromacy
comprehensive color models
perceptual trichromacy
the trichromatic theory
maxwell's trichromatic measurements
maxwell's imaginary primaries

the metameric foundation
grassmann's laws
color matching experiments
individual differences
the white point
real color matching functions
size of the color stimulus
imaginary color matching functions
the chromaticity diagram
the cie Yxy standard observer

imaginary or imperfect primaries
two primary paradoxes
three artists' misconceptions

⎯  modern color models  ⎯

the evolution of color models
color naming
color mixture
color models
color model assumptions

Swedish Natural Color System
four components of ncs
the ncs color model
using and interpreting the ncs

Munsell Color System
geometry of the munsell system
the munsell renotations
the asymmetry of color space
the limited gamut of color atlases

OSA uniform color scales
rhombohedral lattice
the osa uniform color space
color space is noneuclidean
images of the OSA uniform color scales

CIELUV uniform color space
color matching and color differences
the cieluv dimensions
the uniform color space
current use of cieluv

CIELAB uniform color space
the cielab dimensions
the uniform color space
current use of cielab
the CIELAB a*b* plane

CIECAM color appearance model
the ciecam02 dimensions
graphical analysis of ciecam
the ciecam color space
future prospects
the CIECAM acbc plane

⎯  comparison of hue circles  ⎯

color vision

comments : requests